8. NURTURE: CHILD::
(A) cultivate: crop (B) quench: fire
(C) marvel: infant (D) secure: possession
(E) delimit: obligation
9. SAW: CARPENTER::
(A) brush: painter (B) typewriter: author
(C) trowel: bricklayer (D) wagon: farmer
(E) scissors: tailor
10. EPITAPH: TOMBSTONE::
(A) pedestal: statue (B) prologue: play
(C) melody: song (D) salutation: letter
(E) motto: shield
11. SIMPER: SMILE::
(A) babble: talk (B) thought: blank
(C) look: espy (D) leer: ogle (E) wink: eye
12. EGG: CHICKEN::
(A) pearl: oyster (B) roe: salmon
(C) shell: clam (D) skin: shark
(E) tusk: walrus
13. GLIMMER: DAZZLE::
(A) delineate: disclaim (B) recede: abandon
(C) recite: harangue (D) muse: reflect
(E) murmur: resound
14. RESCIND: LAW::
(A) postpone: performance
(B) withdraw: candidacy
(C) default: debt (D) demote: hierarchy
(E) retire: position
15. ENTANGLE: INNOLVE::
(A) caution: fear (B) compel: force
(C) grill: question (D) replicate: copy
(E) waver: adhere
16. ALCHEMY: SCIENCE::
(A) sideshow: carnival
(B) forgery: imitation
(C) burlesque: comedy (D) ploy: tactic
(E) nostrum: remedy
A mysterious phenomenon is the ability of over-water migrants to travel on course. Birds, bees, and other species can keep track of time without any sensory cues from the outside world, and such "biological clocks" clearly con- tribute to their "compass sense." For example, they can use the position of the Sun or stars, along with the time of day, to find north. But compass sense alone cannot explain how birds navigate the ocean: after a flock traveling east is blown far south by a storm, it will assume the proper northeasterly course to compensate. Per- haps, some scientists thought, migrants deter- mine their geographic position on Earth by ce- lestial navigation, almost as human navigators use stars and planets, but this would demand of the animals a fantastic map sense. Researchers now know that some species have a magnetic sense, which might allow migrants to determine their geographic location by detecting variations in the strength of the Earth's magnetic field.
17. The main idea of the passage is that
(A) migration over land requires a simpler explanation than migration over water does
(B) the means by which animals migrate over water are complex and only partly understood
(C) the ability of migrant animals to keep track of time is related to their magnetic sense
(D) knowledge of geographic location is essential to migrants with little or no compass sense
(E) explanations of how animals migrate tend to replace, rather than build on, one another
18. It can be inferred from the passage that if the flock of birds described in lines 8-12 were navigating by compass sense alone, they would, after the storm, fly
(A) east (B) north (C) northwest
(D) south (E) southeast
19.In maintaining that migrating animals would need "a fantastic map sense" (line 17) to determine their geographic position by celestial navigation, the author intends to express
(A) admiration for the ability of the migrants
(B) skepticism about celestial navigation as an explanation
(C) certainly that the phenomenon of migration will remain mysterious
(D) interest in a new method of accounting for over-water migration
(E) surprise that animals apparently navigate in much the same way that human beings do
20. Of the following descriptions of migrating animals, which most strongly suggests that the animals are depending on magnetic cues to orient themselves?
(A) Pigeons can properly readjust their course even when flying long distances through exceedingly dense fogs.
(B) Bison are able to reach their destination by passing through a landscape that has been partially altered by a recent fire.
(C) Elephants are able to find grounds that some members of the herd have never seen before.
(D) Swallows are able to return to a given spot at the same time every year.
(E) Monarch butterflies coming from different parts of North America are able to arrive at the same location each winter.
Roger Rosenblatt's book Black Fiction, in attempt ing to apply literary rather than sociopolitical criteria to its subject, successfully alters the approach taken by most previous studies. As Rosenblatt notes, criticism of Black writing has often served as a pretext for ex- pounding on Black history. Addison Gayle's recent work, for example, judges the value of Black fiction by overtly political standards, rating each work ac- cording to the notions of Black identity which it propounds.
Although fiction assuredly springs from political circumstances, its authors react to those circumstances in ways other than ideological, and talking about novels and stories primarily as instruments of idology circumvents much of the fictional enterprise. Rosen- blatt's literary analysis discloses affinities and con- nections among works of Black fiction which solely political studies have overlooked or ignored.
Writing acceptable criticism of Black fiction, how- ever, presupposes giving satisfactory answers to a number of questions. First of all, is there a sufficient reason, other than the racial identity of the authors, to group together works by Black authors? Second, how does Black fiction make itself distinct from other modern fiction with which it is largely contempora- neous? Rosenblatt shows that Black fiction constitutes a distinct body of writing that has an identifiable, coherent literary tradition. Looking at novels written by Blacks over the last eighty years, he discovers re- curring concerns and designs independent of chronol- ogy. These structures are thematic, and they spring, not surprisingly, from the central fact that the Black characters in these novels exist in a predominantly White culture, whether they try to conform to that culture of rebel against it.
Black Fiction does leave some aesthetic questions open. Rosenblatt's thematic analysis permits consider- able objectivity; he even explicitly states that it is not his intention to judge the merit of the various works- yet his reluctance seems misplaced, especially since an attempt to appraise might have led to interesting results. For instance, some of the novels appear to be structurally diffuse. Is this a defect, or are the authors working out of, or trying to forge, a different kind of aesthetic? In addition, the style of some Black novels, like Jean Toomer's Cane, verges on expressionism or surrealism; does this technique provide a counterpoint to the prevalent theme that portrays the fate against which Black heroes are pitted, a theme usually con- veyed by more naturalistic modes of expression? In spite of such omissions, what Rosenblatt does include in his discussion makes for an astute and worthwhile study. Black Fiction surveys a wide variety of novels, bringing to our attention in the process some fascinating and little-known works like James Weldon Johnson's Autobiography of an Ex-Colored Man. Its argument is tightly constructed, and its forthright, lucid style exemplifies levelheaded and penetrating criticism.
21. The author of the passage objects to criticism of Black fiction like that by Addison Gayle because it
(A) emphasizes purely literary aspects of such fiction
(B) misinterprets the ideological content of such fiction
(C) misunderstands the notions of Black identity contained in such fiction
(D) substitutes political for literary criteria in evaluating such fiction
(E) ignores the interplay between Black history and Black identity displayed in such fiction
22. The author of the passage is primarily concerned with
(A) evaluating the soundness of a work of criticism
(B) comparing various critical approaches to a subject
(C) discussing the limitations of a particular kind of criticism
(D) summarizing the major points made in a work of criticism
(E) explaining the theoretical background of a certain kind of criticism