雅思阅读Part 1 READING PASSAGE 1
PERSONAL TIME MANAGEMENT
Since the early work of Halberg(1960),the existence of human "circadian rhythms" has been well-known to biologists and psychologists. Circadian rhythms dictate that there are certain times of the day when we are at our best both physically and psychologically. At its simplest, the majority of us feel more alive and creative in the mornings, while come the evenings we are fit only for collapsing with a good book or in front of the television. Other of us note that in the morning we take a great deal of time to get going physically and mentally, but by the evening are full of energy and bright ideas, while a very few of us feel most alert and vigorous in the late afternoon .
Irrespective of our personal rhythms, most of us have a productive period between 10a.m. and noon, when the stomach, pancreas, spleen and heart all appear to be in their most active phases. Conversely, the majority of us experience a low period in the hour or two after lunch (a time when people in some societies sensibly take a rest), as most of our energy is devoted to the process of digestion. The simple rules here are: don't waste too much prime time having a coffee break around 11a.m.when you should be doing some of your best work, and don't make the after-lunch period even less productive by overloading your digestion. A short coffee or tea break is ,in fact, best taken on arrival at the office ,when it helps us start the day in a positive mood, rather than mid-morning when it interrupts the flow of our activities. Lunch is best taken early, when we are just beginning to feel hungry, and we are likely to eat less than if we leave it until later. An early lunch also means that we can get back into our productive stride earlier in the afternoon.
Changes in one's attitude can also enhance personal time management. For example, the notion of pro-action is eminently preferable to reaction. To pro-act means to anticipate events and be in a position to take appropriate action as soon as the right moment arrives. To react, on the other hand, means to have little anticipation and do something only when events force you to do so. Pro-actors tend to be the people who are always one step ahead of other people, who always seem to be in the right place at the right time, and who are always better informed than anyone else. Many of us like an easy life, and so we tend to be reactors. This means that we aren't alert to the challenges and opportunities coming our way, with the consequence that challenges bother us or opportunities pass us by before we're even properly aware they're upon us. We can train ourselves in pro-action by regularly taking the time to sit down and appraise the likely immediate future, just as we sit down and review the immediate past.
Psychologists recognise that we differ in the way in which we characteristically attribute responsibility for the various things that happen to us in life. One of the ways in which we do this is known as locus of control (Weiner,1979), which refers to assigning responsibility. At its simplest, some individuals have a predominantly external locus of control, attributing responsibility to outside causes (for example, the faults of others or the help given by them) ,while with other individuals the locus of control is predominantly internal, in which responsibility is attributed to oneself (for example, one's own abilities or lack of them, hard work, etc.).
However, the picture usually isn't as simple as this. Many people's locus of control is more likely to be specific to a particular situation, for example internal in certain areas, such as their social lives, and external in others, such as their working lives. Or, to take another example, they may attribute certain kinds of results to themselves, such as their successes, and certain kinds of results to other people, such as their failures. Obviously the best kind of locus of control is one that is realistic and able to attribute every effect to its appropriate cause, and this is particularly important when it comes to time management. Certainly, there are occasions when other people are more responsible for our time loss than we are, but for most of us, and for most of the time, the blame must fall fairly and squarely upon ourselves.
Choose ONE phrase (A-J) from the list in the box below to complete each key point below. Write the appropriate letters (A-J) in boxes 1-6 on your answer sheet.
The information in the completed sentences should be an accurate summary of points made by the writer.
N.B. There are more phrases (A-J) than sentences, so you will not use them all. You may use any phrase more than once.
Part 2 A类雅思阅读模拟练习题
You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 14-25 which are based on Reading Passage 2, "The Muang Faai Irrigation SysTEM of Northern Thailand".
Reading Passage 2 has 7 sections.
Choose the most suitable heading for each section from the list of headings (A-L) below. Write the appropriate letter (A-L) in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.
N.B. There are more headings than sections, so you will not use all of them.
List of Headings
A) Rituals and beliefs
B) Topography of Northern Thailand
C) The forests of Northern Thailand
D) Preserving the system
E) Agricultural practices
F) Village life
G) Water distribution principles
H) Maintaining natural balances
I) Structure of the irrigation system
J) User's rights
K) User's obligations
L) Community control
14. Section 1
15. Section 2
16. Section 3
17. Section 4
Example Section 5 A
18. Section 6
19. Section 7
THE MUANG FAAI IRRIGATION SYSTEM OF NORTHERN THAILAND
Northern Thailand consists mainly of long mountain chains interspersed with valley bottoms where streams and rice fields dominate the landscape. Most of the remaining forests of the North are found at higher altitudes. The forests ensure regular seasonal rainfall for the whole area and at the same time moderate runoff, so that there is water throughout the year.
The lowland communities have developed an agricultural system adapted to, and partially determining, the distinctive ecosystems of their areas. Practicing wet-rice agriculture in the valley-bottoms, the lowlanders also raise pigs, ducks and chickens and cultivate vegetable gardens in their villages further up the slopes. Rice, beans, corn and native vegetables are planted in hill fields above the villages, and wild vegetables and herbal medicines are gathered and wild game hunted in the forests higher up the hillsides. The forests also serve as grazing grounds for cows and buffalo, and are a source of wood for household utensils, cooking fuel, construction and farming tools. Fish are to be found in the streams and in the irrigation system and wet-rice fields, providing both food and pest control.
In its essentials, a muang faai system consists of a small reservoir which feeds an intricate, branching network of small channels carrying water in carefully calibrated quantities through clusters of rice terraces in valley bottoms. The system taps into a stream above the highest rice field and, when there is sufficient water, discharges back into the same stream at a point below the bottom field. The water in the reservoir at the top, which is diverted into a main channel (Iam muang) and from there into the different fields, is slowed or held back not by an impervious dam, but by a series of barriers constructed of bunches of bamboo or saplings which allow silt, soil and sand to pass through.
Water from the Iam muang is measured out among the farmers according to the extent of their rice fields and the amount of water available from the main channel. Also considered are the height of the fields, their distance from the main channel and their soil type. The size and depth of side-channels are then adjusted so that only the allocated amount of water flows into each farmer's field.
Part 3 A类雅思阅读模拟练习题
You are advised to spend about 20 minutes on Questions 26-39 which are based on Reading Passage 3 below.
THE ORIGINS OF INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES
The traditional view of the spread of the Indo-European languages holds that an Ur-language, ancestor to all the others, was spoken by nomadic horsemen who lived in what is now western Russia north of the Black Sea near the beginning of the Bronze Age. As these mounted warriors roamed over greater and greater expanses, they conquered the indigenous peoples and imposed their own proto-Indo-European language, which in the course of succeeding centuries evolved in local areas into the European languages we know today. In recent years, however, many scholars, particularly archaeologists, have become dissatisfied with the traditional explanation.
The starting point of the problem of the origins of Indo-European is not archaeological but linguistic. When linguists look at the languages of Europe, they quickly perceive that these languages are related. The connections can be seen in vocabulary, grammar and phonology (rules for pronunciation). To illustrate the numbers from one to ten in several Indo-European languages. Such a comparison makes it clear that there are significant similarities among many European languages and also Sanskrit, the language of the earliest literary texts of India, but that languages such as Chinese or Japanese are not members of the same family (see figure 1).
然而，雅思阅读的主要方向并未发生变化，无论是文章出处（magazines, journals, books and newspapers）还是文章的类型（at least one text contains detailed logical argument）都遵循了一直以来的出题模式，并未走出其框架。考生们多阅读有关类型的文章，掌握其语言特色有助于提高对文章的了解及阅读速度。