在GRE阅读考试中，要着眼于主旨题、文章结构题、态度题、IN ORDER TO题，这类题目要争取做对，在这样的题目上多花些时间比较选项之间的细微差别是值得的，但是对于一些泛指化题型和一些难于定位的细节题，如果觉得实在困难，可以稍微排除一些选项，进行推测。千万不要在不看原文的情况下，在选项的猜测上多花无谓的时间，一定要记住，花时间一定要花在能定位的题目上！
No. 5-1 SECTION 1
1. Clearly refuting sceptic, researchers have----not only that gravitational radiation exists but that it also does exactly what theory----it should do.
(A) doubted.. warranted
(B) estimated.. accepted
(C) demonstrated.. predicted
(D) assumed.. deduced
(E) supposed.. asserted
2. Sponsors of the bill were----because there was no opposition to it within the legislature until after the measure had been signed into law.
(A) unreliable (B) well-intentioned
(C) persistent (D) relieved (E) detained
3. The paradoxical aspect of the myths about Demeter, when we consider the predominant image of her as a tranquil and serene goddess, is her----search for her daughter.
(A) extended (B) agitated
(C) comprehensive (D) motiveless
4. Yellow fever, the disease that killed 4,000 Philadel- phians in 1793, and so----Memphis, Tennessee, that the city lost its charter, has reappeared after nearly two decades in----in the Western Hemi- sphere.
(A) terrorized.. contention
(B) ravaged.. secret
(C) disabled.. quarantine
(D) corrupted.. quiescence
(E) decimated.. abeyance
5. Although----, almost self-effacing in his private life, he displays in his plays and essays a strong
----publicity and controversy.
(A) conventional.. interest in
(B) monotonous.. reliance on
(C) shy.. aversion toward
(D) retiring.. penchant for
(E) evasive.. impatience with
6. Comparatively few rock musicians are willing to laugh at themselves, although a hint of----can boost sales of video clips very nicely.
(A) self-deprecation (B) congeniality
(C) cynicism (D) embarrassment
7. Parts of seventeenth-century Chinese pleasure gar- dens were not necessarily intended to look---；they were designed expressly to evoke the agreeable melancholy resulting from a sense of the ----of natural beauty and human glory.
(A) beautiful.. immutability
(B) cheerful.. transitoriness
(C) colorful.. abstractness
(D) luxuriant.. simplicity
(E) conventional.. wildness
8. APPLE: SKIN::
(A) potato: tuber (B) melon: rind
(C) tomato: fruit (D) maize: cob
(E) rhubarb: leafstalk
9. FIRE: INFERNO::
(A) speech: shout (B) wind: temperature
(C) storm: hurricane (D) whale: minnow
(E) plant: flower
10. BODYGUARD: PERSON::
(A) police officer: traffic (B) teacher: pupil
(C) major: city (D) soldier: country
(E) secretary: office
11. LOPE: RUN::
(A) uncover: lose (B) view: see
(C) sigh: moan (D) chew: drink
(E) drawl: speak
12. HOAX: DECEIVE::
(A) scandal: vilify (B) lottery: disburse
(C) gimmick: wheedle (D) filibuster: delay
(E) boast: cajole
13. ALCOVE: RECESS::
(A) turret: chimney (B) dome: roof
(C) column: entrance (D) foyer: ballroom
(E) foundation: building
14. BALLAST: INSTABILITY::
(A) buoy: direction (B) purchase: slippage
(C) lathe: metal (D) pulley: leverage
(E) hoist: elevator
15. MUFFLE: SOUND::
(A) assuage: grief (B) maul: object
(C) extract: flavor (D) endure: agony
(E) conceal: secret
16. MITIGATE: SEVERE::
(A) compile: available (B) restore: new
(C) contribute: charitable
(D) venerate: reverent (E) qualify: general
A Marxist sociologist has argued that racism stems from the class struggle that is unique to the capitalist system-that racial prejudice is generated by capitalists as a means of controlling workers. His thesis works rel- atively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States, but his definition of racial prejudice as "racially-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition," can be interpreted as also including hostility toward such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe. However, since prejudice against these latter peoples was not inspired by capitalists, he has to reason that such antagonisms were not really based on race. He disposes thusly (albeit unconvincingly) of both the intolerance faced by Jews before the rise of capitalism and the early twentieth-century discrimination against Oriental people in California, which, inconveniently, was instigated by workers.
17. The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?
(A) What accounts for the prejudice against the Jews in medieval Europe?
(B) What conditions caused the discrimination against Oriental people in California in the early twentieth century?
(C) Which groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?
(D) What explanation did the Marxist sociologist give for the existence of racial prejudice?
(E) What evidence did the Marxist sociologist provide to support his thesis?
18. The author considers the Marxist sociologist's thesis about the origins of racial prejudice to be
(A) unoriginal (B) unpersuasive
(C) offensive (D) obscure (E) speculative
19. It can be inferred from the passage that the Marxist sociologist would argue that in a noncapitalist society racial prejudice would be
(A) pervasive (B) tolerated (C) ignored
(D) forbidden (E) nonexistent
20. According to the passage, the Marxist sociologist's chain of reasoning required him to assert that prej- udice toward Oriental people in California was
(A) directed primarily against the Chinese
(B) similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews
(C) understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition
(D) provoked by workers
(E) nonracial in character
By 1950, the results of attempts to relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather dis- couraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the (5) like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience.
Near the turn of the century, it had been sug- (10) gested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, taste, and color, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed (15) to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It was possi- ble to demonstrate by other methods refined struc- tural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its condition was influenced by these differences, (20) which seemed instead to influence the developmen- tal patterning of the neural circuits. Although quali- tative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally aban- doned in favor of the opposing view, namely, that (25) nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in qual- ity and are transmitted as "common currency" throughout the nervous system. According to this theory, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sen- (30) sations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious (35) human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the visual cortex, an audi- tory sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in (40) the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psychoneural corre- lations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differ- (45) ences.
However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, warmth, movement, (50) pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some kind of differential pat- terning effects in the brain excitation: it is the dif- ference in the central distribution of impulses that (55) counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correla- tion between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homoge- neous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimen- (60) sions of mental experience psychologists could only point to a limitless variation in the spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses.
21. The author suggests that, by 1950, attempts to cor- relate mental experience with brain processes would probably have been viewed with
(A) indignation (B) impatience
(C) pessimism (D) indifference (E) defiance
22. The author mentions "common currency" in line 26 primarily in order to emphasize the
(A) lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings
(B) similarity of the sensations that all human beings experience
(C) similarities in the views of scientists who have studied the human nervous system
(D) continuous passage of nerve impulses through the nervous system
(E) recurrent questioning by scientists of an accepted explanation about the nervous system
23. The description in lines 32-38 of an experiment in which electric stimuli were applied to different sen- sory fields of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that
(A) the simple presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity of mental experience
(B) variation in spatiotemporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with variation in subjec- tive experience
(C) nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they travel through the nervous system
(D) the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the corti- cal area activated
(E) variation in neuron types affects the quality of nerve impulses
24. According to the passage, some evidence exists that the area of the cortex activated by a sensory stimu- lus determines which of the following?
I. The nature of the nerve impulse
II. The modality of the sensory experience
III. Qualitative differences within a modality
(A) II only (B) III only (C) I and II only
(D) II and III only (E) I, II and III
25. The passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical views of the
(A) anatomy of the brain
(B) manner in which nerve impulses are conducted
(C) significance of different cortical areas in mental experience
(D) mechanics of sense perception
(E) physiological correlates of mental experience
26. Which of the following best summarizes the author's opinion of the suggestion that different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve impulses?
(A) It is a plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.
(B) It is the best explanation of brain processes cur- rently available.
(C) It is disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are physiologically very similar.
(D) There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.
(E) There is experimental evidence that confirms its correctness.
27. It can be inferred from the passage that which of the following exhibit the LEAST qualitative variation?
(A) Nerve cells (B) Nerve impulses
(C) Cortical areas
(D) Spatial patterns of nerve impulses
(E) Temporal patterns of nerve impulses
(A) look around (B) dodge easily
(C) seem hard (D) forge ahead
(E) change radically
(A) distribute (B) analyze
(C) systematize (D) blend (E) prepare
(A) loss (B) liability (C) decrease
(D) shortfall (E) discount
(A) off-key (B) out-of-shape
(C) without pity (D) out-of-phase
(E) without difficulty
(A) recurrent (B) rare (C) comprehensible
(D) scanty (E) flawed
(A) short duration (B) massless particle
(C) resistant medium
(D) ability to maintain pressure
(E) tendency to change motion
(A) silence (B) slowness (C) sharpness
(D) essence (E) repose
(A) probity (B) sophistry (C) acumen
(D) polish (E) vigor
(A) sordid (B) modern (C) improvised
(D) exceptionally quick
(E) completely formed
(A) exotic (B) shallow (C) episodic
(D) manifest (E) treatable
(A) unsurprising (B) unambiguous
(C) unimpressive (D) inevitable
No. 5-1 SECTION 2
1. Since it is now----to build the complex central processing unit of a computer on a single silicon chip using photolithography and chemical etching, it seems plausible that other miniature structures might be fabricated in----ways.
(A) unprecedented.. undiscovered
(B) difficult.. related (C) permitted.. unique
(D) mandatory.. congruent (E) routine.. similar
2. Given the evidence of Egyptian and Babylonian
----later Greek civilization, it would be incorrect
to view the work of Greek scientists as an entirely independent creation.
(A) disdain for (B) imitation of
(C) ambivalence about (D) deference to
(E) influence on
3. Laws do not ensure social order since laws can always be----, which makes them----unless the authorities have the will and the power to detect and punish wrongdoing.
(A) contested.. provisional
(B) circumvented.. antiquated
(C) repealed.. vulnerable
(D) violated.. ineffective
(E) modified.. unstable
4. Since she believed him to be both candid and trust- worthy, she refused to consider the possibility that his statement had been----.
(A) irrelevant (B) facetious (C) mistaken
(D) critical (E) insincere
5. Ironically, the party leaders encountered no greater
----their efforts to build a progressive party than
the----of the progressives already elected to the legislature.
(A) support for.. advocacy
(B) threat to.. promise
(C) benefit from.. success
(D) obstacle to.. resistance
(E) praise for.. reputation
6. It is strange how words shape our thoughts and trap us at the bottom of deeply----canyons of thinking, their imprisoning sides carved out by the
----of past usage.
(A) cleaved.. eruptions (B) rooted.. flood
(C) incised.. river (D) ridged.. ocean
(E) notched.. mountains
7. That his intransigence in making decisions----no open disagreement from any quarter was well known; thus, clever subordinates learned the art of
----their opinions in casual remarks.
(A) elicited.. quashing
(B) engendered.. recasting
(C) brooked.. intimating
(D) embodied.. instigating
(E) forbore.. emending
8. BABBLE: TALK::
(A) chisel: sculpt (B) harmonize: sing
(C) scribble: write (D) hint: imply
(E) quibble: elude
9. SYLLABUS: COURSE::
(A) rules: jury (B) map: destination
(C) recipe: ingredients (D) appetizer: meal
(E) agenda: meeting
10. VARNISH: WOOD::
(A) etch: glass (B) tarnish: silver
(C) wax: linoleum (D) burnish: metal
(E) bleach: fabric
11. PITCH: SOUND::
(A) color: light (B) mass: weight
(C) force: pressure (D) energy: heat
(E) velocity: time
12. DISCOMFITED: BLUSH::
(A) nonplussed: weep (B) contemptuous: sneer
(C) affronted: blink (D) sullen: groan
(E) aggrieved: gloat
13. INVINCIBLE: SUBDUED::
(A) inconsistent: expressed
(B) impervious: damaged
(C) imprudent: enacted (D) bolted: separated
(E) expensive: bought
14. STRIATED: GROOVE::
(A) adorned: detail (B) woven: texture
(C) engraved: curve (D) constructed: design
(E) braided: strand
15. DOGGEREL: VERSE::
(A) burlesque: play (B) sketch: drawing
(C) operetta: symphony (D) fable: narration
(E) limerick: sonnet
16. DROLL: LAUGH::
(A) grisly: flinch (B) bland: tire
(C) shrill: shriek (D) coy: falter
(E) wily: smirk
The transfer of heat and water vapor from the ocean to the air above it depends on a disequilibrium at the interface of the water and the air. Within about a mil- limeter of the water, air temperature is close to that of the surface water, and the air is nearly saturated with water vapor. But the differences, however small, are crucial, and the disequilibrium is maintained by air near the surface mixing with air higher up, which is typically appreciably cooler and lower in water-vapor content. The air is mixed by means of turbulence that depends on the wind for its energy. As wind speed increases, so does turbulence, and thus the rate of heat and moisture transfer. Detailed understanding of this phenomenon awaits further study. An interacting-and complicat- ing-phenomenon is wind-to-water transfer of momen- tum that occurs when waves are formed. When the wind makes waves, it transfers important amounts of energy-energy that is therefore not available to provide turbulence.
17. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) resolve a controversy
(B) describe a phenomenon
(C) outline a theory
(D) confirm research findings
(E) classify various observations
18. According to the passage, wind over the ocean gen- erally does which of the following?
I. Causes relatively cool, dry air to come into proximity with the ocean surface.
II. Maintains a steady rate of heat and moisture transfer between the ocean and the air.
III. Causes frequent changes in the temperature of the water at the ocean's surface.
(A) I only (B) II only (C) I and II only
(D) II and III only (E) I, II, and III
19. It can be inferred from the passage that the author regards current knowledge about heat and moisture transfer from the ocean to air as
(A) revolutionary (B) inconsequential
(C) outdated (D) derivative (E) incomplete
20. The passage suggests that if on a certain day the wind were to decrease until there was no wind at all which of the following would occur?
(A) The air closest to the ocean surface would become saturated with water vapor.
(B) The air closest to the ocean surface would be warmer than the water.
(C) The amount of moisture in the air closest to the ocean surface would decrease.
(D) The rate of heat and moisture transfer would increase.
(E) The air closest to the ocean would be at the same temperature as air higher up.
Extraordinary creative activity has been characterized as revolutionary, flying in the face of what is established and producing not what is acceptable but what will become accepted. According to this formulation, highly creative activity transcends the limits of an existing form and establishes a new principle of organization. How- ever, the idea that extraordinary creativity transcends established limits in misleading when it is applied to the arts, even though it may be valid for the sciences. Differ- ences between highly creative art and highly creative sci- ence arise in part from a difference in their goals. For the sciences, a new theory is the goal and end result of the creative act. Innovative science produces new proposi- tions in terms of which diverse phenomena can be related to one another in more coherent ways. Such phe- nomena as a brilliant diamond or a nesting bird are rele- gated to the role of data, serving as the means for for- mulating or testing a new theory. The goal of highly creative art is very different: the phenomenon itself becomes the direct product of the creative act. Shake- speare's Hamlet is not a tract about the behavior of indecisive princes or the uses of political power; nor is Picasso's painting Guernica primarily a propositional statement about the Spanish Civil War or the evils of fascism. What highly creative artistic activity produces is not a new generalization that transcends established lim- its, but rather an aesthetic particular. Aesthetic particu- lars produced by the highly creative artist extend or exploit, in an innovative way, the limits of an existing form, rather than transcend that form.
This is not to deny that a highly creative artist some- times establishes a new principle of organization in the history of an artistic field; the composer Monteverdi, who created music of the highest aesthetic value, comes to mind. More generally, however, whether or not a composition establishes a new principle in the history of music has little bearing on its aesthetic worth. Because they embody a new principle of organization, some musical works, such as the operas of the Florentine Camerata, are of signal historical importance, but few listeners or musicologists would include these among the great works of music. On the other hand, Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro is surely among the masterpieces of music even though its modest innovations are confined to extending existing means. It has been said of Beethoven that he toppled the rules and freed music from the stifling confines of convention. But a close study of his compositions reveals that Beethoven over- turned no fundamental rules. Rather, he was an incom- parable strategist who exploited limits-the rules, forms, and conventions that he inherited from predecessors such as Haydn and Mozart, Handel and Bach-in strik- ingly original ways.
21. The author considers a new theory that coherently relates diverse phenomena to one another to be the
(A) basis for reaffirming a well-established scientific formulation
(B) byproduct of an aesthetic experience
(C) tool used by a scientist to discover a new particular
(D) synthesis underlying a great work of art
(E) result of highly creative scientific activity
22. The author implies that Beethoven's music was strikingly original because Beethoven
(A) strove to outdo his predecessors by becoming the first composer to exploit limits
(B) fundamentally changed the musical forms of his predecessors by adopting a richly inven- tive strategy
(C) embellished and interwove the melodies of sev- eral of the great composers who preceded him
(D) manipulated the established conventions of musical composition in a highly innovative fashion
(E) attempted to create the illusion of having tran- scended the musical forms of his predecessors
23. The passage states that the operas of the Florentine Camerata are
(A) unjustifiably ignored by musicologists
(B) not generally considered to be of high aesthetic value even though they are important in the history of music
(C) among those works in which popular historical themes were portrayed in a musical produc- tion
(D) often inappropriately cited as examples of musical works in which a new principle of organization was introduced
(E) minor exceptions to the well-established gener- alization that the aesthetic worth of a com- position determines its importance in the his- tory of music
24. The passage supplies information for answering all of the following questions EXCEPT:
(A) Has unusual creative activity been character- ized as revolutionary?
(B) Did Beethoven work within a musical tradition that also included Handel and Bach?
(C) Is Mozart's The Marriage of Figaro an example of a creative work that transcended limits?
(D) Who besides Monteverdi wrote music that the author would consider to embody new prin- ciples of organization and to be of high aes- thetic value?
(E) Does anyone claim that the goal of extraordi- nary creative activity in the arts differs from that of extraordinary creative activity in the sciences?
25. The author regards the idea that all highly creative artistic activity transcends limits with
(A) deep skepticism (B) strong indignation
(C) marked indifference
(D) moderate amusement
(E) sharp derision
26. The author implies that an innovative scientific con- tribution is one that
(A) is cited with high frequency in the publications of other scientists
(B) is accepted immediately by the scientific com- munity
(C) does not relegate particulars to the role of data
(D) presents the discovery of a new scientific fact
(E) introduces a new valid generalization
27. Which of the following statements would most logi- cally concluded the last paragraph of the passage?
(A) Unlike Beethoven, however, even the greatest of modern composers, such as Stravinsky, did not transcend existing musical forms.
(B) In similar fashion, existing musical forms were even further exploited by the next generation of great European composers.
(C) Thus, many of the great composers displayed the same combination of talents exhibited by Monteverdi.
(D) By contrast, the view that creativity in the arts exploits but does not transcend limits is sup- ported in the field of literature.
(E) Actually, Beethoven's most original works were largely unappreciated at the time that they were first performed.
(A) dullness (B) emptiness
(C) awkwardness (D) state of immobility
(E) excess of information
(A) state of suppressed enmity
(B) state of complete certainty
(C) state of mild hysteria
(D) state of unprovoked anger
(E) state of feeble opposition
(A) altered plans (B) intended actions
(C) unexplained occurrences
(D) isolated units (E) unfounded conclusions