发布时间：2012-11-19 10:03:37 来源：杭州朗阁培训中心 编辑：杭州朗阁小编
Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two ty...“Sociologists have built on the distinction between expressive and instrumental ties to distinguish between two types of groups: primary and secondary. A primary group involves two or more people who enjoy a direct, intimate, cohesive relationship with one another. Expressive ties predominate in primary groups; we view the people as ends in themselves and valuable in their own right. A secondary group entails two or more people who are involved in an impersonal relationship and have come together for a specific, practical purpose. Instrumental ties predominate in secondary groups; we perceive people as means to ends rather than as ends in their own right. Sometimes primary group relationships evolve out of secondary group relationships.“
很多同学，看到上面的 “ we view the people as ends in themselves” 和 “we perceive people as means to ends”就彻底晕菜了。这个其实是可以理解的，这两句话实际是哲学家Kant（康德）关于道德的哲学思想。我们先来看看康德是怎么说的：
According to Kant, there are different ways to state what our duty is. One of them involves the idea of a law. Another involves the idea of humanity, or human reason. Morality says that you should never treat rational human beings merely as means to your end. Whenever you use someone’s skills or services to your own end, you should always also treat that person as an end in him- or herself.